Sunday, January 12, 2020

Language and Literacy in Social Practice Essay

Language and Literacy in Social Practice is one of a set of four readers which looks at literacy and language practices as they are moulded and shaped by the cultures of the societies they serve. Edited by Janet Maybin, the book is a collection of key articles by seminal writers in the field who investigate the role of language and literacy as part of social practice. Broken down into four sections, the book begins with articles by Malinowski, Dell Hymes, Halliday and Volosinov and sets the scene for an anthropoligical/historical exploration of the sophisticated interaction and interrelationships between language, culture and social structure. Section two then provides ethnographic accounts of recent research by researchers like Taylor and Heath who document detailed evidence of literacy practices in a wide range of situations. They show in effect how literacy practices are very much the product of economic, religious, cultural and political processes and in particular the profound effect of differing socio-cultural expectations on the educational experiences and successes of learners at the macro level of the family and the local community. Section three moves away from a local focus to review literacy practices from a cross-cultural and historical perspective drawing on the writings of Street, Graff and Gee to look at literacy and language not so much as competencies and skills but rather as a product shaped by sociocultural parameters and some socioeconomic ‘myths’. The final section draws on the cultural and historical perspectives presented thus far and adds the further specific dimension of the political aspects of language planning and teaching to investigate how literacy and language teaching is very much a product of the rhetoric of governments and a tool to control and disposses minorities and to maintain a status quo that is elitist and exclusivist. What then is the value of Maybin’s book? It certainly doesn’t work as a sourcebook or a handbook of how to improve literacy practices in any given situation – and nor is it meant to. What it does work as is as a body of readings for reflective practitioners who would like to explore the significance of the crucial place language and literacy teaching holds in most Western societies and to look at the ways in which even the most ‘mundane’ literacy practices are heavily influenced by discrete parameters of culture, society and history. Its merit lies in the way that it, through historical perspective, social theory and current research, strongly encourages the reader to value what McGinitie has referred to as ‘the power of uncertainty’. Language and Literacy in Social Practice forces the reader to consider the complex and interrelated nature of language learning and the nature of literacy acquisition as value laden activity – value laden because of the variety of social factors which vie for dominance in the formation and maintenance of a majority Discourse. The structure of the book is logical and easy to follow. For myself, I found the first section to be the least valuable in terms of what it had to offer me, but, given its intention to provide a theory base for the sociological perspective of language as a social semiotic, it achieved its aim adequately. What was much more thought provoking were the articles in section two which detailed the ways in which literate practices were inextricably related to social and cultural practices and values. Of particular value to me as well were the articles by Rockhill on Gender, language and the politics of literacy and Paolo Freire on Adult literacy processes . Language and Literacy in Social Practice is not a book of readings preaching to the converted. Rather it is a thought provoking collection of writings which will encourage the sensitive literacy educator to examine again the values one transmits. Particularly in the culturally plural Australian context, Maybin’s book provides readings that, while not specific to the Australian context, are nevertheless very easily transferrable in the principles and understandings they embody. So much so that if one were to carefully think through and implement by negotiation the broad principles outlined in the book, Language and Literacy in Social Practice could well serve as a blueprint for a policy framework for literacy education in any society that truly valued its cultural diversity and which was determined to provide the sort of education that would question the status quo. Additionally, it would offer all participants real access to those constructions of empowering literate behaviour that are the staple of the disourse practices and power relationships of everyday life. It is not, I don’t believe, overly strong when Rockhill says that ‘the politics of literacy are integral to the cultural genocide of a people†¦ ‘. Language and Literacy in Social Practice raises the sorts of issues that will help us re-examine our own personal politics to prevent just that sort of ‘cultural genocide’ no matter how well intentioned or how genteel our motives. It is a book for all educators, cutting across cultures and specifics, providing a body of thought that, if it doesn’t change existing practice, will at the very least strongly encourage a reappraisal of what it is that one actually does in the classroom.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

The Reality of the Vaginal Orgasm - 1226 Words

Unlike the biologically male population, majority of women have difficulty with reaching orgasm from intercourse alone . It is confusing and frustrating amongst heterosexual couples that seek mutually conducive sexual experiences and often amounts to self-blame and sexual insecurity in the female counterpart. There are many factors that contribute to producing orgasms, and because of its multifaceted nature, there are also many factors that can disrupt the production of female orgasms. In this piece I will focus on reasons that contribute to this difference in frequency between men and women, which will include: why difficulty of the female orgasm is common, one of the most common sexual disorders amongst women, and why some women†¦show more content†¦Similarly, women inherit the neural pathways and erectile tissue of the homologous clitoral organ that are needed to achieve orgasm. But because there lacks selection pressure for female orgasms, they are underdeveloped in female mammals. This lack of selection pressure results in a vast variability of factors pertaining to female orgasm, including the ease and occurrence of orgasm. Because female orgasm is defined in this way more so as a capacity for an ability rather than an outcome of sexual reflex (like the male orgasm), there is no particular â€Å"natural† or â€Å"common† orgasm. It seems as though the accepted â€Å"normal† has become close to the consistent reflex-type orgasm of males. This skews the perspective when approaching the topic of female orgasm and the question then becomes something along the lines of, â€Å"How can I make my orgasm like my partner’s?† : consistent, reliable, and—at the baseline—existent. If a female has a lack of or lacking orgasms in comparison and feels consequential distress, she may look for a cure to the medically termed â€Å"dysfunction†, which then implies that she is unnatural (Master Johnson, 1966). This term has stuck, however and â€Å"sexual disorder† is the umbrella, medical term for the common sexual complaints amongst men and women. They h ave been categorized as follows: (1) loss of sexual desire; (2) inadequate mental or genitalShow MoreRelatedHysteria, Not Only Oppressed Female Social Upliftment1566 Words   |  7 PagesThis misconception, as well as its unravelling was heavily influenced by the developments of Western medicine. The following essay will look at these developments, focusing on how the invention of the vibrator changed the perception of the female orgasm, sexual desire and pleasure. To begin with, the two-sex model and the influence of religious movements will be analysed in assessing how they created the ideal female of the 19th century. Subsequently, Hysteria will be explored in this context, focusingRead MoreSex After Menopause And Its Effects On Young Adults And Men975 Words   |  4 Pagesultra-gel is for dryness for women. Vaginal dryness occurs most often during perimenopause and menopause. Your body produces reduced amounts of estrogen during menopause, which accounts for the majority of va ginal dryness encountered by women. Viagra for women is for post-menopausal or post-hysterectomy women who complain of female sexual arousal disorder. The women in the group who took Sildenafil (Viagra) enhanced sex lives included better arousal, lubrication and orgasm. Proactive deep cleaning to keepRead MoreThe Effects Of Sexual Behavior On The Human Male2312 Words   |  10 Pagesmass data gathering, classification of that data, and the knowledge that classification can generate. Some advocate the perpetuation of our ignorance because they fear that science will undermine the mystical concepts that they have substituted for reality. There appear to be more persons who believe that an extension of our knowledge may contribute to the establishment of better marriages (Kinsey, Pomery and Martin). Failure to recognize these differences in the needs of the two sexes for a regularRead MoreDevelopment Of Sexual And Abnormal Fetishes1419 Words   |  6 Pagesfetishes. The client bei ng studied had history of having a foot fetish. The psychologist discovered that as a young child the man often sat at the feet of his mother while she stroked and fondled his head. During, he often caught glimpses of her vaginal area from time to time when his mother was in a short nightdress. (Lowenstein, 2002, p.144). This illustrates a sexual association with feet that was developed in childhood by a positive and repetitive process. Media can also have influences on fetishesRead MoreSexuality : Human Sexuality, Sexual Orientation And Sexual Behavior1193 Words   |  5 Pagesunique to each and every individual. A general stereotype of sexuality in old people exists in the society. Most people tend to believe that sexuality diminishes with age and that old people are not supposed to be sexually active beings. It is a reality however that most old people engage in sexual activities and have sexual needs even late into their lives (Connaughton McCabe, 2015). Beliefs on sexuality i n old people have greatly influenced negatively the way old people express their sexualityRead MoreFreedom in the United States Compared to the Practice Female Genitalia Mutilation in the World1551 Words   |  6 Pageswas identified as a substitute for human sacrifice and was often times used for â€Å"women weakness† or conditions in the USA and UK. Amongst these conditions included, hysteria, melancholy, epilepsy, lesbianism, excessive masturbation, achievement of orgasm, and control of sexual drive (Eke 57.) Unfortunately, this does not show us who the ultimate culprits’ responsible for this devastating practice is, or which gender the enemy identified themselves as. In fact, to say this was a male inflicted practicedRead MoreAnthà ­a Muà ±oz April 23, 2014 WMST 3100-001 Final Exam IV: Feminist scholarship extensively2200 Words   |  9 Pagesguide, educate, and bridge the gap of spiritually can also be a source of systematic oppression, preserving and reproducing inequalities of power. In which the individual is seen as both reflexive and agentic in their continuous co-creation of their reality, rather than prisoners of instinct. Inequality creates an opportunity for resistance to emerge through various methods of subverting, shifting discourse, dismantling exclusive binaries, challenging heteronormativity, and submissive myth, as well asRead MoreI Am A Mother For The First Time1554 Words   |  7 Pagesdirector and producer of The Business of Being Born, also talked about feeling robbed of the experience of a more natural birth with her friend Ricki Lake, saying â€Å"The other births that we filmed, that we saw, there’s just that moment, it’s like the orgasm, at the end....where they put this baby in your arms† (â€Å"The Business of Being Born†), when asked if she feels if she missed out. This is common, as many of the expectations that women have surrounding birth comes from media, such as movies as WhatRead MoreWomen Gender Roles2496 Words   |  10 Pagesexpected of them for centuries. In 1968, The Myth of the Vaginal Orgasm by Anne Koedt created awareness and education regarding female anatomy and sexual pleasure. It also shattered societal barriers of what was considered morally acceptable to discuss. The female orgasm was given scientific reasoning, and this countered its previous understanding established by Sigmund Freud, which illustrated women who were unable to orgasm from vaginal stimulation alone as sick women who needed psychiatric careRead MoreSummary and Critique of The Gift of Sex Essay3607 Words   |  15 Pagesthat sex is also a spiritual and emotional act, involving the total person, the body, soul and spirit. There is a connection with the sexual relationship of a husband and his wi fe, and the intimate relationship of God and man. Revelation of this reality would bring freedom and fulfillment in God and in marriage. There are many aspects to a sexual relationship between a husband and wife, apart from gaining sexual release. Although there may be many different hindrances that can befall any married

Friday, December 27, 2019

The Civil Rights Movement Of North Carolina Essay - 967 Words

â€Å"By the summer of 1964,† David Cunningham writes in â€Å"Klansville, U.S.A.,† â€Å"the Carolina Klan established a demanding schedule of nightly rallies across the state, where they enlisted thousands of dues-paying members.† More than that, â€Å"at its mid-1960s peak the Klan’s presence in North Carolina eclipsed klan membership in all other southern states combined.† (Cunningham most likely put â€Å"klan† in lowercase because of the groups’ disorganization.) North Carolina should have been the state where the KKK thrived most during the mid-1960s — Cunningham reports that in mid-1966 it had 192 Klaverns, (branches of the Ku Klux Klan), and 52.2 percent of the total Klan membership in the 10 states of the South — was a mystery to many and a source of considerable dismay to the state’s leadership, which prided itself on its nonviolent response to the challenges posed by the civil rights movement. The state had been described by V.O. Key, in his immensely influential (if now somewhat dated) â€Å"Southern Politics in State and Nation† (1949), as â€Å"energetic and ambitious† with â€Å"a reputation for progressive outlook and action in many phases of life, especially industrial development, education, and race relations,† a judgment that had been confirmed by the election in 1960 of a notably capable and progressive governor, Terry Sanford. North Carolina has always been a much more complicated place than its publicists have claimed. If Raleigh, Greensboro, Winston-Salem and CharlotteShow MoreRelatedCivil Rights Movement : North Carolina1680 Words   |  7 PagesThe Civil Rights Movement in North Carolina North Carolina, like all southern states, experienced a civil rights movement after the Civil War. This movement would last for over 100 years until 1965 with the signing of the Civil Rights Act. While the term â€Å"civil rights movement† focuses on ending segregation and discrimination towards African Americans, there were other important freedoms and rights fought for in North Carolina. In addition to race; gender equality and voting rights, as well as,Read More The Civil Rights Movement (1955- 1965) Essay1262 Words   |  6 Pages Civil Rights Movement in the United States, was a political, legal, and social struggle to gain full citizenship rights for African Americans and to achieve racial equality. The civil rights movement was a challenge to segregation, the system of laws and customs separating blacks and whites. During the civil rights movement, individuals and organizations challenged segregation and discrimination with a variety of activities, including protest marches, boycotts, and refusal to abide by segregationRead MoreThe Strike Of Foodservice Workers At Unc Chapel Hill1587 Words   |  7 Pageslevel of civil rights on college campuses in the south during the civil rights movement. The efforts of the women and Black Student Movement to fight for fair pay, We will also look at the impact this labor dispute had for not only the college campus but also the entire state of North Carolina and the nation at large. Not only geographically, we will also examine the effect this foodservice strike has had on the fast food industry presently and labor relations for the â€Å"Fight for 15† movement. TheRead MoreThe Civil War On American History1206 Words   |  5 Pages country divided, the Civil War left a huge impact in history as it helped form what our nation is today. An inevitable conflict that was due in time to transform into a war, the Civil War was influenced by societal interests, economic changes along with political disagreements. Together, these influences sparked a nation into a great divide that ended in what is known as the deadliest war in American history. Just In the aftermath of the industrial revolution, the Civil War was ignited due to economicRead MoreTimothy B. Tyson s Radio Free Dixie : Robert F Williams And The Roots Of Black Power1300 Words   |  6 PagesTimothy B. Tyson is a teacher, historian, research scholar, and an award-winning author. Tyson was born in North Carolina in 1959 and was raised there his whole life. In 1987, Tyson earned a B.A. at Emory University and then his Ph. D in history at Duke University in 1994. He also became an assistant professor of Afro-American Studies at the University of Wisconsin -Madison the same year he received his Ph.D., and later became a full-time professor. Tyson currently stays in Madison, Wisconsin withRead MoreSectional issues leading up to the Civil War, how the North South and West felt about states rights, tariffs, western land policy, mexican war, secession and how all these linked back to slavery.1364 Words   |  6 PagesThe Civil war was the most momentous and crucial pe riod of time in the history of America. Not only did this war bring an end to slavery but also paved way for numerous social and political changes. The country had already been torn by the negative trend in race relations and the numerous cases of slave uprisings were taking their toll on the country s political and social structure. The country was predominately divided up into 3 sections, the North, the South, and the West. Each of these groupsRead MoreThe North Carolina At Chapel Hill Essay1427 Words   |  6 Pagesattack from civil rights activists lately. Silent Sam has stood on the University of North Carolina’s main campus in Chapel Hill for over 100 years. In that time there have only been a few times in which Sam has been the object of criticism. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is one of the most prestigious and well-known educational institutions in the United States. Students from all over the country as well as all over the world come to the University of North Carolina for furtheringRead MoreSports And Education : Paving The Way For A New American Life995 Words   |  4 PagesLife in North Carolina With the conclusion of the Civil War in 1865, the â€Å"New South† as the native folks of North Carolina began referring their state by, sought a new way of American lifestyle through the rapid growth and popularity of organized sports. A nation controlled by ideals of the racist white male suppressed the ability of women, the poor, and African Americans to create a prosperous life for themselves. Pamela Grundy is able to beautifully illustrate the lifestyle of North Carolina citizensRead MoreHis/125 Radical Reconstruction and the Populist Movement778 Words   |  4 Pagesto recreate the southern general cultural beliefs so it was more like the beliefs of the north. Sadly there was constant fighting and many changes made within the federal government, it would not permit the reconstruction to be become as successful as they (the radicals) had wanted it. Some of the ex-Confederates were afraid if the government implemented the new laws passed, the lives they had before the Civ il War would not be the same. Some were afraid with the black slaves becoming freed slaves;Read MoreGlenda Elizabeth Gilmore’s book Defying Dixie: The Radical Roots of Civil Rights, 1919-1950 shows600 Words   |  3 PagesDixie: The Radical Roots of Civil Rights, 1919-1950 shows the Civil Rights movement in the same light as those writers like Jacquelyn Dowd Hall who believed in â€Å"The Long Movement.† Gilmore sets out to prove that much more time and aspects went into the Civil Rights Era and that it did not just start at the time of Brown v. Board of Education and the civil rights acts of the nineteen sixties. The book adhered to the ideology of â€Å"The Long movement† aspects of the civil rights era during its earlier times

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Analysis Of The Book Night By Elie Wiesel - 1017 Words

In the book Night by Elie Wiesel it says â€Å"human suffering anywhere concerns men and women everywhere.† This shows that the world’s problems are everyone’s problems. Everyone has their own responsibilities and when war occurs people tend to take on more responsibility than ever before. The United States is a prime example of making the world’s problems their own. When problems arise people step up and take responsibility. Like in the quote from Elie Wiesel, human suffering really is everyone’s problem. In war and times of conflict, America has intervened because they believe that it is their problem to try and solve. This is evident through speeches in World War I, propaganda in World War II, letters during Vietnam, biographies concerning the Soviet War in Afghanistan, and speeches from the War on Terror. Franz Ferdinand’s assassination is what many people believed sparked World War I. The United States joined World War I in 1917 as an ally (fix this eventually!!!) Woodrow Wilson outlined America’s goals for the war in his Fourteen Point Speech. In this speech Wilson mentions the United States being â€Å"privileged to assist the people of Russia to attain their utmost hope of liberty and ordered peace.† By responding this way the United States has taken on the responsibility of helping the Russian people from (Whatever they need help from). Wilson said, â€Å"We entered this war because violations of right had occurred which touched us to the quick and made the life of our own peopleShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Book Night By Elie Wiesel945 Words   |  4 PagesElie Wiesel was born in 1928. In his book, Night, which was published in 1955, Wiesel depicts his personal journey through the German concentration camps by the use of his character Eliezer (Sparknot es). At the age of 15, he lives with his family in Sighet, Transylvania (Biography). His father Shlomo is very involved with the community there. Eliezer is deeply engaged in religious studies, being taught by Moshe, an older man in his community who is considered a lunatic by many (Sparknotes). InRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Night By Elie Wiesel1778 Words   |  8 Pagesthemselves this question, whether they have fully grasped their personality or not, and during that difficult time, even the things you thought you knew about yourself are challenged. In the memoir, Night, the author Elie Wiesel, presents the story of his own time in Auschwitz during the German Holocaust. Elie, being Jewish, was deported into concentration camps in Hitler’s final solution. He underwent such things as witnessing death for the first time, extreme exhaustion, inhumane treatment, and seeingRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Night By Elie Wiesel794 Words   |  4 Pages  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Night In the book Night by Elie Wiesel there are many instances where his use of imagery helps establish tone and purpose. For example Elie Wiesel used fire (sight) to represent just that. The fire helps prove that the tone is serious and mature. In no way did Wiesel try to lighten up the story about the concentration camps or the Nazis. His use of fire also helps show his purpose. â€Å"Never shall I forget that night, the first night in camp, that turned my life into one long night seven timesRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Night By Elie Wiesel1367 Words   |  6 PagesNight is the detailed account of Elie Wiesel’s experiences as a Jew in Germany during the Holocaust. Night is considered a memoir, however, Wiesel uses fictional characters to tell his story. Eliezer acts as Wiesel’s author surrogate, a fictional character based on the author, and narrates the story. Over the course of the text Wiesel exposes the full face of the dehumanization perpetrated against the Jewis h people. Through persuasive oration, Hitler was able to manipulate the Germans and justifyRead MoreNight By Elie Wiesel : Book Analysis708 Words   |  3 Pagesto continue. Majority of people stopped eating, gave up their religious faiths and hope, welcoming the darkness to embrace them. Surviving was a constant struggle for these people and the only way to overcome it was the acceptance of death. Night, by Elie Wiesel, is a memoir of the authors firsthand experience in the holocaust from his perspective as a teenage boy. The author includes concerns that individuals have, but never spoken aloud of, such as a home, family relations, and the effect this experienceRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Night By Elie Wiesel907 Words   |  4 Pages In the book Night written by Elie Wiesel was mainly about how a young boy had to suffer the traumatic experience of existence and fatality at Nazis concentration camps. In the book, Elie Wiesel was the character â€Å"Eliezer Wiesel†. Eliezer was a young boy at the age of fourteen who lived in Sighet, Transylvania. During the lead of World War II, Eliezer was an extremely earnest young boy who desired to examine and practice Jewish theology. He also occasionally spent a great deal of time and passionRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Night By Elie Wiesel1216 Words   |  5 Pageswhen I first saw the book. The images that they title brought to my mind is someplace where there is no light, no happiness.When you think of night you clearly think of physical darkness but I think night symbolizes a place without God’s presence, somewhere where there s no hope. The emotions that this title brought to my mind is sadness. Sadness because once you are in the dark there is nothing y ou can do but wait. Wait on your destiny. The impression that the picture on the book gave me was very vagueRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Night By Elie Wiesel1045 Words   |  5 PagesIn the memoir Night by Elie Wiesel, Elie Wiesel is a young boy who struggles to survive after being forced to live in the brutal concentration camp of Auschwitz. In Auschwitz, death and suffering is rampant, but due to compassionate words and actions from others, Elie is able to withstand these severe living conditions and overcome the risk of death in the unforgiving Auschwitz. As shown through the actions and words of characters in Night, compassion, the sympathetic pity for the suffering or misfortuneRead More Dawn by Elie Wiesel Essay716 Words   |  3 PagesDawn by Elie Wiesel In this report you will see the comparisons between the novel Dawn and the life of Elie Wiesel, its author. The comparisons are very visible once you learn about Elie Wiesel’s life. Elie Wiesel was born on September28,1928 in the town of Hungary. Wiesel went through a lot of hard times as a youngster. In 1944, Wiesel was deported by the nazis and taken to the concentration camps. His family was sent to the town of Auschwitz. The father, mother, and sister of Wiesel died inRead MoreNight Trilogy By Elie Wiesel1075 Words   |  5 PagesEnglish 2 Period 14 10 June 2015 Night Trilogy Criticism Elie Wiesel’s Night Trilogy is comprised of an autobiography about Wiesel’s experience during the Holocaust and the horrific struggle he faced while in concentration camps, and two other stories depicting the rise of Israel and an accident. The acclaimed Holocaust writer is most well-known for Night due to its effect across the globe. Dawn and Day are not autobiographies, yet they have lingering presences of Wiesel in the main characters and narrators

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Evolution of Community and Public Health Nursing free essay sample

Key health issues during the American Revolution, there were high rates of smallpox, yellow fever, cholera, typhoid, typhus, tuberculosis, malaria and infant mortality. Community and public health’s major goal was Improving sanitation among all areas in all communities. The AMA developed a committee to take surveys on sanitation and taking vital statistics. A few years later the Shattuck report would be published, and state and local health departments would be established from that. During this time, the role of community and public health services included â€Å"monitoring water quality, constructing sewers and a waterfront wall, draining marshes, planting trees and vegetables, and burying the dead† (Stanley Lancaster, 2012,p. We will write a custom essay sample on Evolution of Community and Public Health Nursing or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page 24). There were several local community and public health foundations during this time. The Ladies’ Benevolent Society of Charleston, South Carolina, provided charitable assistance to the needy, while in â€Å"Cincinnati, Ohio, the Roman Catholic Sisters of Charity began a visiting nurse service†( Stanley Lancaster, 2012,p. 24) Florence Nigthengale  Key health issues at the time were typhus, cholera, yellow fever, and wounded soldiers from the Crimean war. Perspectives and goals of community and public health nursing were that all nurses were trained using a nursing education model. This would improve care, and patient outcomes. Nurse’s goals were focused on disease prevention and health promotion rather than just treating the sick. Visiting nursing associations were established. Public health emphasized on meeting urban health care needs and caring for the needy (Stanley Lancaster, 2012, p.25). A few groups of Roman Catholic  and protestant women cared for the needy and visiting nursing services began to be established, caring for the ill and the needy. 1950’s As the population lived longer, advances were made in medicine, vaccinations, education, and nursing, more patients suffered with heart disease, cancer, and cerebral vascular disease (Stanley Lancaster, 2012,p.33). The goals of community and public health nurses were treating and preventing chronic diseases and to address areas of psychological issues such as stress and anxiety. Roles and functions of community and public health nursing was in home health agencies, screening communities for chronic illness, providing communities with vaccinations. Community and public health partnerships at the time were the home health agencies and insurance programs.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Predestination is the idea in that a higher power Essays

Predestination is the idea in that a higher power is controlling a person's outcome. By following this definition, a person is saying he or she has no control over their life. Free will is the idea that people can control their own destiny. People's choices and not a higher power control a person's life. The idea of free will is a major theme in th e plays of Oedipus the King. In it the authors use Oedipus to show that people cannot run away from their destiny. The beginning of the play starts with a prophecy. The prophecy is a very important because it is part of the idea of predestination. The events are already set in place and are going to happen whether people believe in them or not. The king at the time, King Laius, really wants a son so he goes to the Oracle of Apollo. The oracle tells Laius that if he has a son then his son will kill his father and marry his mother. The king has a son and sends the boy off. His son is saved by a shepherd and adopted by the king and queen of Corinth. Laius son, now named Oedipus, finds out he is adopted , he goes to the same oracle that his father Laius went too. She does not think it is appropriate to tell him who his real parents are, but she does tell him the prophecy. When Oedipus learns of his prophecy, he immedia tely leaves and heads for Thebes thinking he could escape his destiny and also because he thinks the prophecy is about his adoptive parents and not his real pare nts whom he does not even know . Oedipus thinks it is his "free will" allowing to leave Corinth and he would not fulfil the prophecy, but by leaving Corinth Oedipus actually starts going down the path to his destiny. While he is travelling he gets into a fight with a caravan and unknowingly kills his father, Laius. He then heads to Thebes where he wins the throne by successfully answering the riddle from the Sphinx. Oedipus has now fulfilled the prophecy. He kills his father in the fight and then marries the queen of Thebes who is his mother. When Oedipus finds out he is his father's killer, he blinds himself as punishment. Sophocles is showing his strong belief in predestination by using Oedipus. When the play first starts, it starts with a prophecy. The prophecy is important because it is fate, the prophecy will happen no matter what. The oracle is always right, but people failed to actually believe what would happen even when the clues were there. Oedipus knowledge of his fate was the catalyst for him to fulfil his destiny. If Oedipus does not go asking for his adoptive parents, then he would not have left Corinth. The reader could also say that if Oedipus would not have been adopted then he would have known the identity of his real parents so he would not have fulfilled the prophecy, but by Sophocles making Laius abandon Oedipus as a baby to die Sophocles is showing how people cannot run from their destiny. The events were set before Oedipus were a baby that would ultimately lead him down the path.